|Control, Automation and Systems Perspective on Hypersonic Flight Vehicles/Missiles
Prof. Bong Wie
Date: November 28, 10:50-11:30
|This lecture presents a comprehensive overview of the emerging technologies, with focus on the control, automation and systems aspect, required for the successful development of modern hypersonic flight vehicles/missiles. This lecture consists of
• A brief historical overview of hypersonic flight vehicles/missiles
Bong Wie is Professor of Aerospace Engineering at Iowa State University. He holds a B.S. in aerospace engineering from Seoul National University and a M.S. and Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University. In 2006 he received AIAA’s Mechanics and Control of Flight Award for his innovative research on advanced control of complex spacecraft such as solar sails, large flexible structures, and agile imaging satellites equipped with control moment gyros. He is the author of two AIAA textbooks: “Space Vehicle Dynamics and Control (2nd edition, 2008)” and “Space Vehicle Guidance, Control, and Astrodynamics (2015).” He has published 210 technical papers including 80 journal articles. He has three US patents on singularity-avoidance steering logic of control moment gyros. During the past 10 years, he has been actively involved in guidance, control, and astrodynamics research for deflecting or disrupting hazardous near-Earth objects (NEO). From 2011-2014, he was a NIAC (NASA Advanced Innovative Concepts) Fellow for developing an innovative solution to NASA’s NEO impact threat mitigation grand challenge and its flight validation mission design. His NIAC study effort has resulted in two distinct system concepts for effectively disrupting hazardous asteroids with short warning time, called a hypervelocity asteroid intercept vehicle (HAIV) and a multiple kinetic-energy impactor vehicle (MKIV). His current research focuses on further developing the ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance strategies for robotic/human Mars precision powered descent & landing with hazard avoidance and retargeting. He is also currently investigating advanced guidance and control problems of missiles with precision impact time and angle control (ITAC) requirements. He is co-Editor of Astrodynamics, an international journal newly established in 2018.
|Fusing Machine Learning and Predictive Control for the Safe and Optimal Operation of Autonomous Systems
Prof. Rolf Findeisen
Date: November 28, 15:00-15:50
|Many autonomous systems, such as robots, drones, or autonomous cars, should operate safely yet optimally under uncertain conditions. Often the model of the environment or the system itself is unknown or only partially known, and uncertainties and disturbances are present. We outline that fusing predictive control with machine learning approaches, such as Gaussian processes or Bayesian Neural Networks, allows for safe, optimal control and planning for autonomous systems.
Learning allows adapting based on measurements and data and individualizing the control and planning task to the individual job, while predictive control ensures safety and optimality by exploiting the learned model, cost function, reference, or disturbance. We outline how to integrate systems knowledge and properties, such as controllability and constraint satisfaction, into learning to achieve safe, stable, and optimal behavior. The presented methods are underlined, considering the control and planning spanning from the operation of robots, drones, and autonomous driving to quantum dot microscopy.
Rolf Findeisen received a Diploma in Engineering Cybernetics from the University of Stuttgart in Engineering, an MSc from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and a Dr.-Ing. from the University of Stuttgart. He had research stays at ETH Zürich, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, EPF Lausanne, the University of California at Santa Barbara, Imperial College London, and NTNU Trondheim, Norway. He leads the Control and Cyber-physical systems laboratory at TU Darmstadt. Rolf has been/is editor and associate editor of various journals, e.g., IEEE Control Systems Magazine, IEEE Transactions on Networked Systems, J. Optimal Control Applications, and Methods and Processes. He was the IPC Chair of the IFAC World Congress 2020. The research interests of his group include the control of autonomous systems, predictive control, fusing learning and control, cyber-physical systems, uncertainty, and robustness. Applications span from mechatronics, robotics, and autonomous driving, to biotechnology, batteries, energy systems, and systems medicine.
|Can we synthesize robot mechanisms creatively without any baseline design?
Distinguished Prof. Yoon Young Kim
Date: November 29, 10:40-11:30
|Mechanisms covert an input motion (force) to the desired motion (force). They critically affect the mechanical performance of machines equipped with them. However, it is challenging to design robot mechanisms that successfully generate elaborately-planned motions without big data or many trials and errors. We have looked for a new autonomous (automatic) mechanism synthesis method.
In this talk, we address the following issues:
Yoon Young Kim is a Distinguished Professor at Seoul National University (SNU). He received B.S. and M.S. from SNU and Ph.D. from Stanford University. Since he led a National Creative Research Initiatives Center, he has pioneered the autonomous synthesis of rigid-body mechanisms. He received the National Medal of Honor in Science and Technology (2021) and several prestigious awards from domestic and international academic societies. He was also awarded the mechanical engineer of the year (2019). He was the president of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Asian Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization president, and a vice-president of the International Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. He is a member of KAST (Korean Academy of Science and Technology) and NAEK (National Academy of Engineers of Korea).
|Cyber-physical security of networked control systems
Prof. Henrik Sandberg
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Date: November 29, 15:00-15:50
|Reports of cyber-attacks, such as Stuxnet, have shown their devastating consequences on digitally controlled systems supporting modern societies, and shed light on their modus operandi: First learn sensitive information about the system, then tamper the visible information so the attack is undetected, and meanwhile have significant impact on the physical system. Securing control systems against such complex attacks requires a systematic and thorough approach. We provide an overview of recent work on secure networked control systems centered on a risk management framework and its main stages: scenario characterization, risk analysis, and risk mitigation. In particular, we shall consider malicious attacks on key security properties such as confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Then we focus on specific cyber-physical attack scenarios in control systems and mitigation strategies currently being investigated in our research group.
Henrik Sandberg is Professor at the Division of Decision and Control Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. He received the M.Sc. degree in engineering physics and the Ph.D. degree in automatic control from Lund University, in 1999 and 2004, respectively. He was a Post-Doctoral Scholar at the California Institute of Technology, and a Visiting Scholar at the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS) at MIT. He has also held visiting appointments at the Australian National University and the University of Melbourne. His current research interests include security of cyber-physical systems, power systems, model reduction, and fundamental limitations in control. Dr. Sandberg was a recipient of the Best Student Paper Award from the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control in 2004, an Ingvar Carlsson Award from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, and a Consolidator Grant from the Swedish Research Council. He has served on the editorial boards of IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control and the IFAC Journal Automatica.
|Modeling ionic polymer metal composites: where we are and where we should be
Prof. Maurizio Porfiri
November 30, 10:40-11:30 (Nov. 29, 20:40-21:30 EST)
|Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a promising class of soft active materials. Their high compliance, low actuation voltage, and ability to operate in wet environments have motivated two decades of intensive research on IPMC actuators. While we have witnessed several breakthroughs in the technology of IPMCs, from additive manufacturing of IPMCs to IPMC-based robots, our understanding of the physical underpinnings of their actuation remains elusive. There is a paucity of pedictive, continuum physically-based models to investigate IPMC actuation and sensing. Presently, the literature relies on either black-box lumped models, whose parameters are experimentally identified from data, or phenomenological distributed models, constructed upon classical beam theory. In this sense, we know little about multiaxial deformations elicited by counterions’ diffusion and electromigration through the ionomer. In this talk, we discuss recent progress by my group on a physics-based modeling framework that describes the complex chemoelectromechanical behavior of IPMCs. The proposed framework successfully resolves interface phenomena taking place in the vicinity of the electrodes along with a number of key non-idealities that challenge our intuition and pave the way to new design approaches.
Maurizio Porfiri is an Institute Professor at New York University Tandon School of Engineering, with appointments in the Center for Urban Science and Progress and the Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Civil and Urban Engineering. He received M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Engineering Mechanics from Virginia Tech; a “Laurea” in Electrical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics from Sapienza University of Rome and the University of Toulon. He is engaged in conducting and supervising research on complex systems, with applications from mechanics to behavior, public health, and robotics.
|Advanced control of electric vehicles and development of wireless in-wheel motors
Prof. Hiroshi Fujimoto
Date: November 30, 15:00-15:50
|Electric vehicles (EVs) have attractive potential not only for energy and environmental performance but also for vehicle motion control because electric motors have quick and measurable torque response. The speaker’s laboratory has developed a completely original EV which has active front and rear steering systems. We installed high-torque direct-drive in-wheel motors and lateral force sensors to all wheels.
In the first part of this talk, our recent studies on advanced motion control and autonomous driving to enhance safety, driving comfort, and energy efficiency will be briefly introduced. In the second part, a new type of in-wheel motor, which receives electric power by wireless power transfer using magnetic resonance coupling and control signals by wireless communication, in order to avoid the disconnection of power and signal cables have been developed. This system is called Wireless In-Wheel Motor (W-IWM). In this system, it is also possible to directly transmit power to the in-wheel motor without cables from underground coils for dynamic charging in order to extend the cruising range. This talk introduces the overview and design methods of the W-IWM. We also evaluate the characteristics of the W-IWM when installed on an electric vehicle and demonstrate its effectiveness by driving tests.
Hiroshi Fujimoto earned his Ph.D. degree in the Department of Electrical Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 2001. His first job was a research associate at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata, Japan. From 2002 to 2003, he was a visiting scholar in the School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, U.S.A. In 2004, he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan, as a lecturer and he became an associate professor in following year. He had been an associate professor of the University of Tokyo from 2010 to 2020. Now, he is a professor of both Advanced Engineering at the Graduate School of Frontier Sciences and Electrical Engineering at the Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo. He received the Best Paper Awards from the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics in 2001 and 2013, Isao Takahashi Power Electronics Award in 2010, Best Author Prize of SICE in 2010, The Nagamori Grand Award in 2016, and First Prize Paper Award IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics in 2016. His present interests are in control engineering, motion control, nano-scale servo systems, electric vehicle control, motor drive, visual servoing, and wireless motors. Dr. Fujimoto is a senior member of IEE of Japan and IEEE. He is also a member of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, the Robotics Society of Japan, and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan. He is an associate editor of IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics from 2010 to 2014, IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine from 2006, IEE of Japan Transactions on Industrial Application from 2013, and Transactions on SICE from 2013 to 2016. He is a chairperson of JSAE vehicle electrification committee from 2014 to 2020 and a past chairperson of IEEE/IES Technical Committee on Motion Control from 2012 to 2013.